Redian新闻
>
法律翻译 | 新加坡《个人数据保护法》概述(3)

法律翻译 | 新加坡《个人数据保护法》概述(3)

公众号新闻

译者|Crystal Zhuang 法律从业者

一审|毛雨嫣 中国政法大学

二审|郑晨焕 WUSTL LL.M

编辑|吴文骏 清华大学本科

责编|王冰子 烟台大学本科



如在前两篇(法律翻译 | 新加坡《个人数据保护法》概述(1)以及法律翻译 | 新加坡《个人数据保护法》概述(2))概述中所提到的那样,个人数据保护委员会(Personal Data Protection Commission,以下简称“PDPC”)是新加坡根据 《个人数据保护法》(Personal Data Protection Act 2012,以下简称“PDPA”)成立的监管数据保护的机构,负责管理和执行PDPA。


PDPA重点包含了两组规定,一组为数据保护规定(Data Protection Provisions,下称“数据保护规定”),一组为防电话骚扰登记平台的相关规定。


第一篇概述介绍了PDPC针对PDPA的关键条款发布的《<个人数据保护法>关键概念咨询指南》,并着重翻译了其中关于数据保护规定、谢绝来电规定和严重不当处理个人数据的个人责任的部分。


第二篇概述根据PDPC发布的《关于执行数据保护规定的咨询指南》介绍了PDPA中数据保护规定相关的执行问题,概述主要翻译了指南中关于PDPC所拥有的权力,PDPC发布的决定和指示的相关程序,以及个人提起诉讼的权利。


本文将根据PDPC在2013年发布、2021修改的《关于防电话骚扰登记平台规定的咨询指南》(Advisory Guidelines on the Do Not Call Provisions),对防电话骚扰登记平台的相关规定进行更详细的解释。本文将选取该指南中的部分段落进行翻译,主要集中于以下几个部分:

· 针对防电话骚扰登记平台的相关规定(以下称“防骚扰规定”)的简要概述(选取自指南第1部分)

· 规定中“特定短信”的定义(选取自指南第2部分)

· 规定中“发送者”的定义(选取自指南第5部分)

· 规定中关于检查登记簿的要求的解释(选取自指南第3部分)

· 规定中关于获得接收方同意的要求的解释(选取自指南第3部分)

· 规定中关于短信中应包含身份和联系信息的要求的解释(选取自指南第4部分)



1.针对防骚扰规定的简要概述

(以下内容选取自《指南》第5至7页)


The DNC Provisions apply to persons including individuals as well as companies, associations and other bodies of persons, corporate or unincorporated. The DNC Provisions contain a number of obligations that apply in relation to persons sending specified messages to Singapore telephone numbers. In brief, such persons are required to comply with the following obligations: 


防骚扰规定适用于包括个人以及公司、协会和其他法人或非法人团体。防骚扰规定包含了很大一部分适用于向新加坡电话号码发送特定短信的发送者的义务。简而言之,这些发送者需要遵守以下义务:


a) Duty to check the DNC Register – before a person sends a specified message to a Singapore telephone number, the person must check with the DNC Registry established by the Commission under the PDPA (the “DNC Registry”) to confirm that the number is not listed on the DNC Register established by the Commission as part of the DNC Registry, unless the person has obtained clear and unambiguous consent in evidential form from the user or subscriber of the number4、 (section 43 of the PDPA); and 


a)检查谢绝来电登记簿的义务--在向新加坡电话号码发送特定短信之前,发送者必须与PDPC根据PDPA设立的谢绝来电登记处核实,以确认该号码未被列入PDPC设立的谢绝来电登记簿,除非该发送者已从该号码的用户或订购者那里以证据形式获得明确和毫不含糊的同意(PDPA第43条);并且


b) Duty to identify the sender of a message – when sending a specified message to a Singapore telephone number, the person must: 

i. include information identifying the sender and how the recipient can contact the sender (section 44 of the PDPA); and 

ii. for voice calls, the sender must not conceal or withhold from the recipient the sender’s calling line identity (section 45 of the PDPA). 


b)表明信息发送者身份的责任--向新加坡电话号码发送特定短信时,当事人必须:

i.包含能识别发送者,以及关于接收者如何联系发送者的信息(PDPA第44条);并且

ii.对于语音电话,发送者不得向接受者隐瞒发送者主叫线路的识别信息(PDPA第45条)。


There are three (3) DNC Registers which individuals may choose to opt out of receiving specified messages: 

a) No Voice Call Register, to opt out of receiving specified messages via voice calls (i.e. voice or video calls sent by a telephone service, data service or any other electronic means); 

b) No Text Message Register, to opt out of receiving specified text messages (including any text, sound or visual message that is not a specified call or fax, e.g. SMS/MMS); and

c) No Fax Message Register, to opt out of receiving specified fax messages. 


a)谢绝语音电话登记簿,即选择不接受通过语音电话(即通过电话服务、数据服务或任何其他电子方式发送的语音或视频电话)发送的特定短信;

b)谢绝短信信息登记簿,即选择不接收指定的文本信息(包括任何不属于指定电话或传真的文本、声音或视觉信息,例如短信/彩信);以及

c)谢绝传真信息登记簿,即选择不接收指定的传真信息。


In order to understand how the DNC Provisions apply, it is important to take note of what is a “specified message”, what constitutes sending a message to a Singapore telephone number, and who is a “sender” under the PDPA. These questions, as well as the scope of the above obligations, are addressed in these Guidelines. 


为了解防骚扰规定如何适用,需要着重注意“特定短信”的定义,明白什么是“向新加坡电话号码发送信息”,以及谁是PDPA规定的“发送者”。这些问题以及上述义务的范围,都在本指南中得到解决。



2. 关于“特定短信”的定义

(以下内容选取自《指南》第5至7页)


Section 37 of the PDPA defines what constitutes a “specified message” for the purposes of the DNC Provisions. In brief, under section 37(6) and the Tenth Schedule, a message is a specified message if the purpose of the message, or one of its purposes, is –


PDPA第37条界定了防骚扰规定下“特定短信”的定义。简而言之,根据第37(6)条和附表十,如果一项信息的目的或其目的之一满足如下条款,则该信息为“特定短信”:


a) to advertise, promote, or offer to supply or provide any of the following: 

i. goods or services; 

ii. land or an interest in land; or

iii.a business opportunity or an investment opportunity; 


a)宣传、推广、或希望供应或提供以下任何一项事物:

i.货物或服务;

ii.土地或土地权益;或

iii. 商业机会或投资机会;


b) to advertise or promote a supplier/provider (or a prospective supplier/provider) of the items listed in sub-paragraphs (i) to (iii) above; or 

c) any other prescribed purpose related to obtaining or providing information. 


b)宣传或推广上述第(i)至(iii)项所列项目的供应商/提供商(或潜在的供应商/提供商);或

c) 任何其它与获取或提供信息有关的目的。


In most instances, a marketing message of a commercial nature would be a specified message within the meaning of the PDPA. Messages sent for a purpose which is not specified in section 37(6) and the Tenth Schedule would not be a specified message for the purposes of the PDPA. 


在大多数情况下,具有商业性质的营销信息将构成PDPA定义中的特定短信。若信息发送的目的未在PDPA第37(6)条和附表十中指明,则该信息不属于PDPA所指的特定短信。


Section 37(1) and the Tenth Schedule is subject to the exclusions under section 37(5). Section 37(5) provides that the messages referred to in the Eighth Schedule will not subject to the application of those provisions.


第37(1)条和附表十受第37(5)条规定的例外情况的限制。第37(5)条规定,附表八中提到的短信的类型将不受上述条款中关于条款适用范围的限制。


In order to determine whether the purpose (or one of the purposes) of a message falls within the meaning of a specified message, section 37(1) specifies that the following would be taken into consideration: 

a) the content and presentation aspects of the message; and

b) the content that may be obtained through the message, that is, by using the numbers, URLs or contact information (if any) included in the message or by calling the telephone number from which the message was sent. 


根据第37(1)条规定,为了确定一条短信的目的(或其中一个目的)是否属于特定短信的范畴,应将以下因素纳入考量:

a) 短信的内容和表述方式;以及

b) 可通过该短信获得的内容,即通过使用短信中包含的号码、URL或联系信息(如有),或通过拨打发送该信息的电话号码可以获得的内容。


Matters such as the quality of the goods, the terms and conditions under which the items would be supplied or whether the items are offered to the recipient at an attractive price or free of charge would not affect whether a message is a specified message. 


诸如商品的质量、供应物品的条款和条件,或物品是否以吸引人的价格或免费提供给接收者等这类事项,都不会影响一条短信是否属于特定短信的判定。


It should be noted that under section 37(2), it is immaterial whether the goods, services, land, interest or opportunity exist, or if it is lawful to acquire the goods, services, land or interest or take up the opportunity. Hence a person cannot cite as a defence the fact that, for example, the goods it had offered in a specified message were actually not available for purchase. 


应该指出的是,根据第37(2)条,货物、服务、土地、利益或机会是否真实存在,或者获取货物、服务、土地或利益或利用机会是否合法的问题,都不属于应该考虑的问题。因此,个人不能以其在特定短信中提供的货物实际上无法购买这一事实作为辩护理由。


(图片来源网络)



3.关于“发送者”的定义

(以下内容选取自《指南》第48至49页)


The DNC Provisions contain obligations in relation to the sending of a specified message. Hence a person who sends a message, referred to in the PDPA as the “sender”, is responsible for complying with the DNC Provisions.


防骚扰规定囊括了与发送特定短信有关的义务。因此,发送信息的人,在PDPA中被称为“发送者”,有责任遵守防骚扰规定。


In brief, the term “sender” is defined in section 36(1) of the PDPA as follows:

a) the person who actually sends the message or makes a voice call containing the message;

b) the person who causes the message to be sent or the voice call to be made; and

c) the person who authorises the sending of the message or the making of the call.


简而言之,PDPA第36(1)条对“发送者”的定义如下:

a) 实际发送信息或拨打的语音电话包含该信息的人;

b) 组织发送信息或进行语音通话的人;以及

c) 授权发送该信息或拨打该电话的人。


Hence it is important to note that in addition to the person who actually sent the message or made the call containing the message, persons who caused or authorised the sending of the message or the making of the call are also senders for the purposes of the DNC Provisions and must comply with these provisions. This means that if Person A authorises the sending of the message by Person B, Person A would be considered a sender.


因此,需要注意的是,除了实际发送信息或拨打包含信息的电话的人之外,导致或授权发送信息或拨打电话的人也是DNC条款中的发送者,必须遵守这些条款。这意味着,如果A授权B发送信息,A将被视为发送者。


Section 37 (3) and (4) of the PDPA clarifies when a person is considered to have authorised another to send a message. These provisions state:

Subject to subsection (4), a person who authorises another person to offer, advertise or promote the first person’s goods, services, land, interest or opportunity shall be deemed to have authorised the sending of any message sent by the second person that offers, advertises or promotes that first person’s goods, services, land, interest or opportunity.


PDPA第37(3)和(4)条阐明了个人何时被视为授权他人发送信息。该条款规定:

除非后续的第(4)款另有规定,(根据第(3)款规定)个人如果授权另一个人提供、宣传或推广该个人的货物、服务、土地、利益或机会,应被视为授权另一个人发送任何提供、宣传或推广该个人的货物、服务、土地、利益或机会的信息。


For the purposes of subsection (3), a person who takes reasonable steps to stop the sending of any message referred to in that subsection shall be deemed not to have authorised the sending of the message.


就第(3)款而言,如果个人采取了合理的措施阻止该条款中提到的任何信息的发送,则该个人应被视为没有授权发送该信息。


Under section 37 (3) and (4), if Person A authorises Person B to promote his goods, services, land, interest or opportunity, Person A would be deemed to have authorised the sending of any message for that purpose, unless Person A had taken reasonable steps to prevent Person B from doing so. The determination of whether reasonable steps had been taken depends on the specific facts in question. For example, reasonable steps may include requiring, as a condition of the authorisation given, that Person B shall not promote Person A’s goods by sending specified messages addressed to Singapore telephone numbers.


根据第37(3)和(4)条,如果A授权B推销其商品、服务、土地、利益或机会,A将被视为已授权B为上述目的发送任何信息,除非A已采取合理步骤阻止B这样做。如何确定A是否采取了合理的步骤,将取决于有关的具体事实。例如,合理的步骤可能包括,作为授权的条件,要求B不得通过向新加坡电话号码发送指定的信息来推销A的商品。


A person should note that he would be subject to the DNC Provisions if he falls within the definition of a “sender”, even if the message was sent on behalf of or for another person’s purposes.


个人同时应该注意,如果他属于 "发送者 "的定义范畴,他将会受到防骚扰规定的约束,即使该信息是该个人代表他人或为他人目的而发送。



4. 关于检查登记簿的要求

(以下内容选取自《指南》第22至23页)


The obligation of persons to check with the DNC Registry is set out in section 43 of the PDPA. In particular, under section 43(1) and (2), a person must not send a specified message addressed to a Singapore telephone number unless they had valid confirmation that the Singapore telephone number is not listed in the DNC Register. In order to ascertain this, they must: 


PDPA第43条规定了个人向谢绝来电登记处核查的义务。特别是,根据第43(1)和(2)条,任何人不得向新加坡的电话号码发送特定短信,除非他们有效地确认该新加坡电话号码没有被列入谢绝来电登记簿。为了确定这一点,他们必须:


a) Have made an application to the Commission within 21 days, before sending the specified message, under section 40(2) to confirm whether the Singapore telephone numbers is listed in the DNC Register; and received confirmation from the Commission that the Singapore telephone number is not listed in the relevant register; or


a) 在发送特定短信前的21天内,根据第40(2)条向PDPC提出申请,请求确认该新加坡电话号码是否被列入谢绝来电登记簿;并得到PDPC的回复,确认该新加坡电话号码未被列入相关登记簿;或


b) have obtained from a checker information that the Singapore telephone number is not listed in the relevant register (“relevant information”) and has no reason to believe that – 

i. the relevant information was obtained more than 21 days ago; or 

ii. the relevant information is false or inaccurate. 


b) 已经从检查员[1]那里获得了该新加坡电话号码未被列入相关登记簿的信息(“相关信息”),并且没有理由相信——

i.该相关信息是在21天前获得的;或

ii.相关信息是虚假或不准确的。


The “prescribed duration” within which a person must check with the DNC Registry before sending a specified message to a Singapore telephone number has been prescribed as 21 days. 


个人在向新加坡电话号码发送特定短信之前必须向谢绝来电登记处核查的“规定期限”,已被明确为21天[2]。


The validity period of the results returned from the DNC Registry reflects the requirement for persons to check with the DNC Registry within the “prescribed duration”:


对个人在“规定期限”内向谢绝来电登记处核查的要求,将反映在从谢绝来电登记处返回的结果的有效期限上:




5.关于获得接收方同意的要求

(以下内容选取自《指南》第24页)


As noted in the previous section, a person is not required to check with the DNC Registry before sending a specified message to a Singapore telephone number if the person has obtained a clear and unambiguous consent evidenced in written or other form from the subscriber or user of the number for the sending of the message to that number.


如上一节所述,如果某人已获得该号码的用户或使用者以书面或其他形式明确和毫不含糊地同意向其号码发送信息,则该发送者在向新加坡电话号码发送特定短信之前无需向谢绝来电登记处核查。


The PDPA does not define the terms ‘clear’ and ‘unambiguous’ as the determination of whether consent was clear and unambiguous will depend on the specific facts in question. 


PDPA没有对‘明确’和‘不含糊’进行定义,因为确定同意是否明确和不含糊将取决于有关的具体事实。


Facts that would determine if consent was clear and unambiguous would include: 

a) whether the person had notified the user or subscriber clearly and specifically that specified messages would be sent to his or her Singapore telephone number; and 

b) whether the user or subscriber gave consent to receive specified messages through some form of positive action. Clear and unambiguous consent is unlikely to be construed to have been obtained from a mere failure to opt out through inaction on the part of the user or subscriber. 


能够确定同意是否明确和不含糊的事实包括:

a) 该发送者是否已明确和具体地通知用户或订阅者,特定的短信将被发送到他或她的新加坡电话号码;以及

b) 用户或订阅者是否通过某种形式的积极行动表示同意接收特定短信。清晰和明确的同意,不太可能被理解为仅通过用户或订阅者的不作为举动 --- 即没有选择退出而获得。


(图片来源网络)



6.关于短信中应包含身份和联系信息的要求

(以下内容选取自《指南》第38页至第47页)


6.1 要求提供明确和准确的信息来识别发送者

The policy intent of this requirement is that a recipient of a specified message is able to, using the identification information included in the message, find out who sent or authorised the sending of the message.


这项要求的政策意图是,特定短信的接收方能够利用短信中包含的身份信息,找出是谁发送或授权发送了该信息。


Persons may choose to use their website address as identification information if the recipient can identify the sender using the information provided within the text of the website address itself, or within the contents of the landing page which the website address leads to. 


如果接收方能够利用网站地址本身的文字信息或网站地址所指向的登陆页面的内容来识别发送者,那么发送者可以选择使用其网站地址作为识别信息。


The Commission recognises that in certain circumstances, persons who send specified messages may wish to identify themselves using a name other than their own which is more closely related to the goods or services offered (“related names”) or if the related name would be more familiar to the recipient. Examples of such related names could be the names of a person’s brands, retail outlets, buildings or property developments. Persons should not attempt to obscure or conceal their identity by using related names as identification information.


PDPC认识到,在某些情况下,发送特定短信的人可能希望使用与其所提供的商品或服务更密切的名字(“相关名称”),或者对接受方来说更熟悉的名字,即使这些名字并非发送者本身的名字。这种相关名称的例子可以是发送者的品牌、零售店、建筑物或房地产开发的名称。发送者不应试图通过使用相关名称作为识别信息来掩盖或隐瞒其身份。


Identification information must be provided in the form of a name or alias that is able to identify the sender. The sender would not be considered to have provided identification information if that information is provided solely in the form of generic pronouns, e.g. “me” or “us”, informal nicknames, or fictitious names. 


识别信息必须以能够识别发送者的姓名或别名的形式提供。如果信息仅以通用代词的形式提供,如“我”或“我们”、非正式的绰号或虚构的名字,则该发送者将不会被认定为已提供了身份信息。


6.2 要求提供发送者清晰准确的联系信息

Section 44(b) requires that the contact information must enable the recipient to “readily contact” the sender. The PDPA does not define the terms “readily” or “contact”. These terms would apply as they are commonly understood in relation to the scenario where a recipient of a specified message would like to communicate with the sender directly, in writing or otherwise. The Commission would consider this requirement to be met so long as the contact information enables the recipient to directly contact the sender in a reasonably convenient manner.


第44(b)条规定,联系信息必须使接收方能够“轻易地联系”发送者。PDPA没有定义“随时”或“联系”的术语。在特定短信的接收方希望以书面或其他方式与发送者直接沟通的情况中,这些术语的意思与被惯常理解的意思一致。PDPC认为,只要联系信息能使接收方以合理便利的方式直接与发送者联系,就能满足这一要求。


The most straightforward way to provide contact information would be to provide an operational Singapore telephone number which can receive incoming calls or text messages, or a valid email address which can receive incoming emails.


提供联系信息最直接的方式是提供一个可以接收来电或短信的新加坡运营电话号码,或一个可以接收电子邮件的有效电子邮件地址。


Persons should note that short codes and “No-Reply” email addresses would not be considered contact information, as they do not allow the recipient to readily contact the sender.


人们应该注意,短代码和“不允许回复”的电子邮件地址不能被视为联系信息,因为它们不允许接收方随时联系发送者。


As good practice, any contact information provided should be readily accessible from Singapore and operational during Singapore business hours. In considering whether the contact information provided enables the recipient to readily contact the sender, the Commission will take into account the actual outcome when the contact information is used.


所提供的任何联系信息都应能在新加坡随时联系,并在新加坡的工作时间内工作。在考虑所提供的联系信息是否能让接收方随时联系到发送者时,PDPC将考量使用联系信息时的实际结果。


Solely providing the address of a physical location does not enable the recipient to directly contact the sender without expending more time and effort to either make a trip to the location or write a letter and send it by post to the sender. Therefore, the Commission would not consider the provision of a physical address by itself to fulfil the requirement to provide contact information that enables the recipient to readily contact the sender. 


仅仅提供一个实体地点的地址,并不能使接收方在不花费更多时间和精力前往该地点或写信并邮寄给发送者的情况下直接联系发送者。因此,PDPC认为提供实际地址本身并不能满足提供联系信息使接收方能够随时联系发送者的要求。


来源:《关于防电话骚扰登记平台规定的咨询指南》(Advisory Guidelines on the Do Not Call Provisions)

https://www.pdpc.gov.sg/-/media/Files/PDPC/PDF-Files/Advisory-Guidelines/Advisory-Guidelines-on-the-DNC-Provisions-1-Feb-2021.ashx?la=en 


[注]:译者注,根据PDPA第 43A(1) 条,“检查员”是指帮助发送者检查谢绝来电登记簿,并为其提供有关新加坡电话号码是否列在相关登记簿中的相关信息的人。 检查员不包括作为发送者雇员的个人,也不包括检查员的雇员或承包商。[1]

译者注:该“规定期限”在PDPA中原本并未被明确。[2]

微信扫码关注该文公众号作者

戳这里提交新闻线索和高质量文章给我们。
相关阅读
秋叶如花时,小威带女朋友回来了法律翻译|外国专家:针对波兰的武力攻击未违反国际法律法律翻译 | 英国新任首相里希·苏纳克的就职演讲全文刚刚,《个人养老金实施办法》发布!怎么交,交多少,怎么领取?速看→《个人养老金实施办法》发布,你关注的在这里→活着(十)法律翻译 | Energy Lessons from the Ukraine Crisis 俄乌危机中的能源教训法律翻译|《哥大商法评论》2021年第3期目录+摘要《个人养老金实施办法》发布,你关注的在这里《个人养老金实施办法》发布DPOHUB数据保护官:祝大家新春快乐,万事如意,未来可期!法律翻译 | 美国诉Epsilon公司数据合规案:延期起诉协议节译法律翻译|金斯伯格大法官和扩大“我们人民”一词中的司法角色法律翻译 | 《哈佛法律评论》第135卷第8期目录+摘要量子纠缠一下现代中国法律翻译|《哈佛法律评论》第135卷第5期目录+摘要法律翻译|欧盟-新西兰自由贸易区:履行贸易与可持续发展义务的新方法法律翻译 | 《哥大商法评论》2021年第2期(上)目录+摘要五部门联合发布《个人养老金实施办法》法律翻译 |《哈佛法律评论》第134卷第2期目录+摘要《个保法》出台一年:企业如何实现员工个人信息的科学管理?中文翻译首发|印度隐私立法:2022年《数字个人数据保护法》全文法律翻译 | 《哈佛法律评论》第130卷第8期目录+摘要法律翻译|《耶鲁法律评论》第126卷第3期目录+摘要《个人养老金实施办法》发布:参加人可享受税收优惠法律翻译 | 政客何时会面临“金融市场的愤怒”法律翻译 | 当事方、第三方与条约解释:欧洲人权法院的乌克兰诉俄罗斯(Ukraine v. Russia)第10号案新游记系列预告:金秋英伦行在美国253.眼底出血、给财产、要离婚法律翻译 | 谷歌因滥用市场支配地位被CCI处以巨额罚款收藏版 | 一图读懂《个人信息保护法》一周年相关国家标准WMT 2022 国际机器翻译大赛发榜,微信翻译获对话翻译和生物医学领域翻译共三项冠军法律翻译 | 新加坡《个人数据保护法》概述(1)兰卡资讯|中国再捐赠千吨大米;中方赞赏斯外长驳斥“债务陷阱”叙事;驾照扣分制将执行;加强数据保护工作《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》2023年5月1日起施行
logo
联系我们隐私协议©2024 redian.news
Redian新闻
Redian.news刊载任何文章,不代表同意其说法或描述,仅为提供更多信息,也不构成任何建议。文章信息的合法性及真实性由其作者负责,与Redian.news及其运营公司无关。欢迎投稿,如发现稿件侵权,或作者不愿在本网发表文章,请版权拥有者通知本网处理。