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每日原则:优秀的领导一般不是表面上看起来那么简单

每日原则:优秀的领导一般不是表面上看起来那么简单

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我不愿意用“领导力”一词来描述我的所思所做,因为我不相信大多数人认为的“高超的领导力”能发挥作用。很多人认为优秀的领导者很强势,能激发别人的斗志,激励别人追随自己,很强调“追随”。这种典型的领导者通常把疑问、异议看作威胁,宁愿员工做到“领导怎么说就怎么做”。在这种情况下,领导者负有决策的义务。但因为领导者并非看起来那样的全知全能,人们总会觉醒,并感到气愤。这也是为什么人们既喜欢他们的魅力领袖,同时又渴望将其推翻。


这种传统意义上的“领导者”与“追随者”的关系,与我所认为的有效关系相去甚远,而发挥出最大的有效性,则是“领导者”最需要做的事。坦承自己的不确定、错误和弱点,比试图掩藏要务实得多。更重要的是,拥有好的挑战者胜过拥有好的追随者。理性的讨论和分歧是务实的,因为这可以对领导者进行压力测试,让其重视那些被其忽视的事物。


我认为,领导者有一件事不应该做,那就是操纵。有时候领导者会操纵员工情绪来促使员工做事,而如果员工明白过来,他一般是不会做的。在创意择优的环境下,你是在与聪明人打交道,你一定要按理性思维行事,而非基于本能和情绪。


最有效的领导者的工作目的在于:(1)开明地寻找最佳答案;(2)带领他人一道进行寻找。这就实现了一起学习、求取共识的局面。一个真正伟大的领导者难免会对一些事情拿不准,但随时准备通过开明的探索来应对这种不确定性。在其他方面不变的情况下,如果领导者在外形和行为方面更像技艺超群的忍者,就总是能战胜动作片里孔武有力的英雄。


I don't use the word "leadership" to describe what I do or what I think is good because I don't believe that what most people think of as "good leadership" is effective. Most people think a good leader is a strong person who engenders confidence in others and motivates them to follow him/her, with the emphasis on "follow." The stereotypical leader often sees questioning and disagreement as threatening and prefers people do what they're told. As an extension of this paradigm, the leader bears the main burden of decision making. But because such leaders are never as all-knowing as they try to appear, disenchantment and even anger tends to set in. That's why people who once loved their charismatic leaders often want to get rid of them.

This traditional relationship between "leaders" and "followers" is the opposite of what I believe is needed to be most effective, and being maximally effective is the most important thing a "leader" must do. It is more practical to be honest about one's uncertainties, mistakes, and weaknesses than to pretend they don't exist. It is also more important to have good challengers than good followers. Thoughtful discussion and disagreement is practical because it stress-tests leaders and brings what they are missing to their attention.

One thing that leaders should not do, in my opinion, is be manipulative. Sometimes leaders will use emotions to motivate people to do things that they would not do after reflecting clearly. When dealing with intelligent people in an idea meritocracy, it is essential that one always appeal to their reason rather than their base emotions.

The most effective leaders work to 1) open-mindedly seek out the best answers and 2) bring others along as part of that discovery process. That is how learning and getting in sync occurs. A truly great leader is appropriately uncertain but well equipped to deal with that uncertainty through open-minded exploration. All else being equal, I think the kind of leader who looks and acts like a skilled ninja will beat the kind of leader who looks and acts like a muscular action hero every time.


瑞·达利欧官方微信公众号: raydalio_


《每日原则》为瑞·达利欧(Ray Dalio) 原创,

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